A recent legislative victory in New York provides consumers with the strongest protections in the nation against surprise, out-of-network medical bills. This case study reviews the reasons why consumers receive these bills, summarizes the consumer protections passed in New York, and describes the advocacy strategy that lead to the legislation. This brief relies heavily on interviews with key advocates – Chuck Bell of Consumers Union, Elisabeth Benjamin of Community Service Society of New York, and Heidi Siegfried of New Yorkers for Accessibly Health Coverage and Center for Independence of the Disabled, NY.